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Different types of asphalt sealcoating

Most people always look for options before choosing something. Whether the same process can be used for all coating or if there are specific types for specific coating. Indeed there are various types of seal coating, which you can opt from:

Fog Seal Sand Seal Scrub Seal
Chip Seal Multiple Chip Seal Slurry Seal
Micro Surfacing Cape Seal Pavement Dressing

Fog Seal

As the name explains is used for foggy pavement. They are used to delay weathering of the pavement, improve the pavement’s ability to keep water from penetrating the base course or sub grade, and reduce raveling. An asphalt emulsion mixture is applied by sprayed the mixture onto a pavement surface with or without a sand cove.  The mixture is diluted to the right consistency to get complete coverage on the roadway but not too thick to cause a slippery surface. When applied as a thick layer results in slippery surface. This type works better on a rough surface where the asphalt emulsion has room to pond between the aggregate particles.

Sand Seal

It is understood by the name, it consists usage of sand particles as one of the component. It enriches weathered pavements and fills fine cracks in the pavement surface.   It provides additional skid resistance to the pavement while also inhibiting raveling.  This is also applied by spraying the asphalt emulsion mixture followed by covering of clean sand or fine aggregate.  A pneumatic-tire roller is often used after applying the sand. Excess sand is removed from the road surface after rolling.

Scrub Seal

This is mainly by using the broom like equipment to fill the pavement cracks and voids.  After the asphalt mixture is applied, brooming mechanism is done over the road surface.   A layer of sand or aggregate is applied over the emulsion mixture followed by another drag broom, forcing the sand into the emulsion filled cracks and voids. A pneumatic tire roller is then used over the seal. The excess sand or aggregate is broomed off the roadway a couple of hours after application depending on weather conditions.

Chip Seal

These are the most common surface treatment for low-volume roads. It corrects raveling and seals small cracks on the old pavement surface while providing a skid resistant surface. Application of asphalt mixture is followed by an aggregate cover. The asphalt is usually applied as hot asphalt cement, cutback asphalt, or emulsified asphalt. After the above is applied to the pavement surface, aggregate is immediately applied over the asphalt before the hot asphalt cement cools or breaks. A pneumatic roller is used to reorient or settle the aggregate particles and tighten the rock mold. This type of emulsion would is useful for roads located at high elevations or where the temperatures are lower.

Multiple Chip Seal

It is self explanatory and is often more than one layer of a chip seal treatment applied to a roadway. Two or three applications can be applied using the same equipment as a single chip seal treatment. When multiple layers are applied, the size of aggregate is larger than the previous layers. Multiple chip seals are used to build up a thicker seal coat over an asphalt pavement, as a primed base course, or over a cement-treated base. 

Slurry Seal

Fills small surface cracks, stops raveling, and improves skid resistance of the pavement.  Combination of quick setting asphalt emulsion, fine aggregate, mineral filler, additive, and water is used. The components are carefully measured and combined on the project site and spread with a squeegee device, in small areas and parking lots, a hand squeegee is commonly used. Normally, a specially designed machine vehicle combines the components and spreads the slurry. The vehicle has a spreader box towed behind that spreads slurry in a uniform layer.

Cape Seal

A combination of chip seal and slurry seal. First chip seal is applied followed by application of slurry seal.  The term “cape” is derived from Cape Province of South Africa where this process was developed. A chip seal is applied to the road then the excess aggregate is removed after the asphalt are cured then slurry seal is applied.

Micro Surfacing

This is similar to slurry seal, allows a thicker layer to be placed, and cures faster than a slurry seal. Micro surfacing uses a polymer-modified emulsion mixed with crushed aggregate, mineral fillers like cement, lime, limestone dust, fly ash, water, and additives. The additives influence the mix time and set time.

Pavement Dressing

Fills small cracks and protects the pavement from oxidation and deterioration. Emulsions made from asphalt, coal tar, or combinations of both are used. They may include rejuvenators and a variety of fillers such as fibers and mineral fillers.   Pavement dressings are not limited to, campgrounds, administrative sites, parking lots, and driveways. The pavement dressings containing coal tar are used where protection from petroleum spills are needed. This material is sprayed or squeegeed onto the pavement.

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